Nelson Mandella biography

Nelson Mandella was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the first black South African to hold the office, and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. He could use a weapon when needed and lay it down when needed. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalized racism, poverty and inequality, land reform and fostering racial reconciliation. Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. Internationally, Mandela was Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999.
As a lawyer he was questioning a witness and the witness refused to be questioned by a black and the judge agreed. The African National Party came to power in 1948, he rose to prominence in the ANC’s 1952 Defiance Campaign, was appointed superintendent of the organization’s Transvaal chapter and presided over the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961 in association with the South African Communist Party, leading a sabotage campaign against the apartheid government. In 1962 he was arrested, convicted of conspiracy to overthrow the government, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial.
Mandela served 27 years in prison. An international campaign lobbied for his release, which was granted in 1990 amid escalating civil strife. Mandela published his autobiography and opened negotiations with President F.W. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multiracial elections in 1994, in which he led the ANC to victory. As South Africa’s first black president Mandela formed a Government of National Unity in an attempt to defuse racial tension. The country was 90% black and 8 % white. Mandela’s inauguration took place in Pretoria on 10 May 1994, televised to a billion viewers globally. Mandela allowed de Klerk to retain the presidential residence in the Groote Schuur estate. He also promulgated a new constitution and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. If they admitted their crime they were not punished. Correction officers that beat him he let keep their jobs. He had 9 nuclear weapons and dismantled them. Continuing the former government’s liberal economic policy, his administration introduced measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator between Libya and the United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, and oversaw military intervention in Lesotho. He became an elder statesman, focusing on charitable work in combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the Nelson Mandela Foundation.
Mandela received the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Soviet Order of Lenin and the Bharat Ratna. He is often described as “the father of the nation”. He donated a third of his 552,000 rand annual income to the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund. In prison he organized the soccer league. In 2010 he helped get the World Soccer Championship to South Africa. Mandela has been depicted in cinema and television on multiple occasions. He was portrayed by Danny Glover in the 1987 HBO telefilmMandela. The 1997 film Mandela and de Klerk starred Sidney Poitier as Mandela,while Dennis Haysbert played him in Goodbye Bafana(2007).In the 2009 BBC telefilm Mrs Mandela, Mandela was portrayed by David Harewood, and Morgan Freeman portrayed him inInvictus (2009).Terrence Howard portrayed him in the 2011 film Winnie Mandela. He is portrayed by Idris Elba in the 2013 film, Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom. There is a film coming out soon.


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